Died: 3 Nov 1918 in Odessa, Russia

- Ляпунов Александр Михайлович. Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Эфрона
- В. А. Плисс. О жизни и творчестве Александра Михайловича Ляпунова. Статья в журнале "Санкт-Петербургский университет", 2007:12.
- J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson. Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive

**Aleksandr Lyapunov** was a school friend of Markov
and later a student of Chebyshev.
He did important work on differential equations, potential theory, stability
of systems and probability theory.

His work concentrated on the stability of equilibrium and motion of a mechanical system and the stability of a uniformly rotating fluid. He devised important methods of approximation. Lyapunov's methods, introduced by him in 1899, provide ways of determining the stability of sets of ordinary differential equations.